if虚拟语气的三种时态 虚拟语气考点有哪些(2)

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  三、简单的祝愿和命令:

  3.1 祝愿

  1.May you be happy. (注意那个be)祝你幸福。

  2.May you have a good time.

  3.May the friendship between us last long,

  4.Have a good journey! 祝你旅途愉快!

  3.2 命令

  注意:

  1.命令虚拟语气只能用在第二人称(you),而且通常省略主语(也就是you)。

  2.句子尾通常加上感叹号:!

  3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present),如:work, be , go

  4.否定形式的命令语气,可用助动词 do,加上 not。

  1.Work !

  2.Work harder !

  3.Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词 Be)

  4.You go out !

  5.Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)

  6.Don't be afraid. (口语中常用don't 代替 do not)

  谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(四)

  四、在现在时态句里,用情态动词(Modal Verb)的过去时态(could,might,should,would)表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼、委婉等:

  1. Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office.(情态动词 would,表示客气有礼)

  2. It would be better for you not to stay up too late.(表示委婉)

  五、虚拟语气在宾语从句(Subordinate Clasue)中的用法:

  5.1 在wish后的虚拟语气宾语从句(可省略它的that):

  表示:

  a.和现在的事实相反;

  b.和过去的事实相反;

  c.对将来的主观愿望。

  5.1.1 现在情况的虚拟,从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的):

  1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.(wish, 动词过去式 knew)

  我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道)

  2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.(wish, were)

  但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)

  3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)

  但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能,难道是鸟人?呵呵)

  4. When she was at the party,she wished she were at home.

  (wished,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)

  5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.(wishes,过去虚拟动词understood)

  现在他在中国,他希望能懂得中文。(事实上并不懂)

  6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.

  (will wish,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)

  5.1.2 过去情况的虚拟,从句动词用"had + 过去分词"(时间上较前):

  1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I hadn't wasted so much time.

  我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(事实上已浪费了)

  2. He wishes he hadn't lost the chance.

  他真希望没有失去机会。(其实已失去)

  3. We wished he had spoken to us.

  (wished,had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲)

  4. I wish you had called earlier.

  (wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了)

  5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner.

  (will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不如此)

  5.1.3 将来情况的虚拟(表示将来的主观愿望),从句动词用"would/should/could/might + 动词原形"(时间上较后):

  1. I wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop)

  我希望雨能停止。(事实上雨还在下着呢)

  2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be)

  我希望你安静一些。(事实上那家伙还在吵着呢)

  3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)

  你希望她第二天会到。(事实上她还没到)

  4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change)

  我希望她会改变主意。(呵呵,女孩子可没那么容易就改变主意喔)

  5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)

  (只是希望我们和他在一起,实际上还没在一起)

  谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(五)

  5.2 除了wish之外,下列各动词(如 suggest)的后面的虚拟语气宾语从句,其谓语用:"should + 动词原形"表示建议(suggest)、坚持(insist)等虚拟语气:

  * suggest (建议), recommend (推荐), advise (劝告), propose (建议)

  * insist (坚持), consent (允诺)

  * decide (决定), order (命令)

  * request (要求), demand (要求), desire (期望), ask (要求)

  * maintain (主张), urge (催促)

  1.I suggest that we (should 可省略,下同) start the meeting at once.

  (suggest, should + start) (表示建议立即开会)

  2.The doctor suggested that he (should ) try to lose his weight.

  (suggested, should + try) (表示建议你应该减肥喔)

  3. He insisted that all of us (should) be there on time by any mains.

  (insisted, should + be) (表示坚持,无论如何都要准时到那儿。你再讲也没用哩!)

  4. He insisted that we (should) tell him the news.

  (insisted, should + tell) (表示非要你告诉他不可)

  5. He ordered that the students (should) wash the clothes every week by themselves.

  (ordered, should + wash) (表示命令学生们每周自己洗衣服)

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