初中英语语法解析:现在完成时的用法

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  编者按:现在完成时既涉及过去,又联系现在,很多同学不太能明白其中的多种用法。以下是小编分享的关于现在完成时的用法详解,一起来学习一下吧!

初中英语语法解析:现在完成时的用法

  现在完成时的语法解析

  一.概念:表示某个动作或状态发生在过去,但对现在造成了影响,这个动作或状态也可能已经结束,也可能还要继续下去。

  二、现在完成时态的构成:

  助动词have / has +动词的过去分词。

  当主语为第三人称单数用has,其余人称用have。

  否定句在助动词have/ has 后加not ;

  疑问句则把助动词Have/ Has 提放到主语之前。

  如:I have worked here for ten years .

  She hasn't been to the Great Wall . Haveyou been to Beijing ?

  三、现在完成时态的用法

  (1)、表示过去某时刻发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,常与already, yet, just , ever, never…..before, this morning, now , today, so far , in the last/ past+时间段、over +时间段, recently,by+现在时间等连用

  如:Tom has already finished his homework.

  We have had two classes this morning.

  (2)、表示从过去某一时刻开始,一直延续到现在的动作或状态,常与for 引导的一段时间或since 引导的时间点或过去时间状语从句连用。如:

  Mr Green has lived in China for five months.

  Mr Green has lived in China since five months ago.

  Mr Green has lived in China since he came to China.

  四、have/ hasbeen to 与 have/ hasgone to 区别

  (1)、 have/ hasbeen to 表曾去过某地(现在已不在该地),其后可接表次数的时间名词。如:Have they been to E'mei Mountain?

  (2)、have/ hasgone to 表示去某地了(现在不在说话的现场),其后不能用任何时间名词。如:Where is Jim ? He has gone tothe library.

  (3)、have/ has been in /at表曾在某地住过、停留过,其后常跟for或since引导

  的时间状语。如:I have been at that village for ten years.

  五、短暂性动词在完成时态中的运用

  (1)、短暂性动词不能和for,since引导的时间状语连用,也不能用在how long

  引起的特殊疑问句中。

  (2). 常用的短暂性动词有:

  borrow, buy, arrive, leave, come, go,start, begin, finish, marry, join, make, die…

  (3).大部分短暂性动词可以根据实际情况改为相应的延续性动词来表达相同

  或相近的意思,常用的列举如下:

  borrow /lend→keep buy →have leave →be away( from) die →be dead

  join →be in / be amember of get to know →know begin →be on

  come →be / live /stay put on →wear catch a cold →have a cold

  get/go to sleep/ fall asleep →sleep, beasleep get up / wake up →be up

  go to school →be at school get/ receive (接收)→have

  hear from →have a letterfrom go / come / arrive /get(到达)/reach→be(in/at)

  finish →be over

  (4)、句型1:It is / hasbeen +时间段+since +句子(过去时态)

  It is five years since he came to China.

  句型2: It’s [will be] the first time that…(第一次…):

  It’s the firsttime I’ve come here. 这是我第一次来这儿。

  【注意】

  一般过去时与现在完成时的区别

  过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;

  现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响;一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用。试比较:

  I saw this film yesterday.(强调看的动作发生过了,不涉及现在)

  I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

  公众号:初中英语语法知识点同步讲解

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初中英语语法解析:现在完成时的用法