英语语法之介词用法

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英语语法是让人很头疼的一个点,但是搞懂了,进步就会特别快,这几个平日常用的语法你了解吗?下面是小编给大家带来的英语语法之介词用法,欢迎大家阅读参考,我们一起来看看吧!

初中英语语法:英语介词姐妹篇(1)

早、午、晚要用 in

例:in the morning 在早上

in the afternoon 在下午

in the evening 在晚上

in the day 在白天

at 黎明、午、夜、点与分

例: at dawn, at daybreak 在黎明时候

at noon 在中午

at night 在夜间

at midnight 在午夜

以上短语都不用冠词

at six o'clock 在6点钟

at 7:30 (seven thirty) 在7点半

at half past eleven 在11点半

at nine fifteen 在9点15 分

at ten thirty a.m. 在上午10点30分也可以写成 seven to five 5点差7分(半小时以上)

five minutes after two 2点过5分

at a quarter to two 1点45分

at the weekend 在周末

年、月、年月、季节、周

即在“某年”,在“某月”,在“某年某月” (但在某年某月某日则用 on),在四季,在第几周等都要用 in。

例:

in 1986 在1986 年

in 1927 在1927 年

in April 在四月

in March 在三月

in December, 1986 1986年12月

in July, l983 1983年7月

in spring 在春季 in summer 在夏季

in autumn 在秋季 in winter 在冬季

in the fist week of this semester 这学期的第一周

in the third week 在第三周

阳光、灯、影、衣、冒 in,即在阳光下,在灯下,在树阴下,穿衣、着装、冒雨等都要用 in。

例:Don't read in dim light. 切勿在暗淡的灯光下看书。

They are reviewing their lessons in the bright light. 他们在明亮的灯光下复习功课。

They are sitting in the shade of a tree. 他们坐在树阴下乘凉。

a prisoner in irons 带着镣铐的囚犯

He went in the rain to meet me at the station. 他冒雨到车站去接我。

The poor dressed (clothed) in rags in old society. 旧社会穷人们衣衫褴褛。

以及:in the bright sunlight 在明亮的阳光下

a merchant in disguise 乔装的商人

the woman in white (black, red, yellow) 穿着白(黑、红、黄)色衣服的妇女

in uniform 穿着制服

in mourning 穿着丧服

in brown shoes 穿着棕色鞋

in his shirt sleeves 穿着衬衫

将来时态 in … 以后

例: They will come back in 10 days. 他们将10天以后回来。

I'll come round in a day or two. 我一两天就回来。

We'll be back in no time. 我们一会儿就回来。

Come and see me in two days' time. 两天后来看我。(从现在开始)

After … (从过去开始)

小处 at 大处 in

例:Li and I arrived at Heishan county safe and sound, all is well. Don't worry.

李和我平安地到达黑山县,一切很好,勿念。

I live in a great city (big city), my sister lives at a small town while my parents live at a village. 我住在大城市,我姐姐住在一个小城镇,而我的父母则住在农村。

I'm in Liaoning, at Anshan. 我住在辽宁省鞍山市.

有形 with 无形 by,语言、单位、材料 in

例:The workers are paving a road with stone. 工人们正用石子铺路。(有形)

The teacher is correcting the paper with a new pen. 这位教师正用一支新笔批改论文。(有形)

“Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy”is a good opera. <<智取威虎山>>是—出好戏。(无形)

The product is separated by distillation into gasoline and gas oil. 这种产品是用蒸馏分离出汽油和粗柴油。(表示方式、手段、方法——无形)

I really can't express my idea in English freely in-deed.

我确实不能用英语流利地表达我的思想。(表示某种语言用 in)

I wrote a novel in Russian. 我用俄语写了一本小说。(同上)

The kilometer is the biggest unit of length in the metric system.

公里是米制中最长的长度单位。(表示度、量、衡单位的用 in )

The length is measured in meter, kilometre, and centimetre.

长度是以米、公里、厘米为单位来计算的。(同上)

This board was cast in bronze not in gold. 这个牌匾是铜铸的,不是金铸的。

特征、方面与方式、心情、成语惯用 in

特征或状态:

例: The Democratic Party was then in power. 那时民主党执政。

They found the patient in a coma. 他们发现病人处于昏迷状态。

He has not been in good health for some years. 他几年来身体一直不好。

Many who came in despair went away in hope. 许多人带着绝望情绪而来,却满怀希望而去。

The house was in ruins. 这房屋成了废墟。

The poor girl was in tears. 这个贫苦女孩泪流满面。

Her clothes were in rags. 她的衣服穿破了。

His shoes were in holes. 他的鞋穿出窟窿了。

I only said it in fun. 我说这话只是开玩笑的。

She spoke in grief rather than in anger. 与其说她讲得很气愤,不如说她讲得很伤心。

还有一些短语也用 in,如:

in jest 诙谐地,in joke 开玩笑地,in spite 恶意地, in fairness 公正地,in revenge 报复, in mercy 宽大,in sorrow 伤心地等。

His mind was in great confusion. 他脑子里很乱。

Today everybody is in high spirits and no one is in low ebb.

今天大家都兴高采烈,没有一个情绪低落的。

She and her classmates are in flower ages. 她和她的同学都正值妙龄。

The campaign was in full swing. 运动正值高潮中。

方面:

例:We accepted the item in principle. 我们在原则上接受了这个条款。

They are never backward in giving their views. 他们从来不怕发表自己的意见。

The backward area has achieved self-sufficient in grain.

这个落后的地区在粮食方面已能自给。

A good teacher must be an example in study. 一个好的教师必须是学习的模范。

方式:

例:All the speeches were taken down in shorthand. 所有报告都用速记记录下来了。

The Party has always educated us in the spirit of patriotism and internationalism.

党一贯以爱国主义和国际主义精神教育我们。

如下成语惯用 in

例:in all 总计

in advance 事前

in the meantime 与此同时

in place 适当地

in hopes of(或 in the hope of) 怀着……希望

in connection with 和……有关

in contact with 和……联系

in addition to 除……以外

in case of 倘若,万一

in conflict with 和……冲突

in force 有效的,大批

in depth 彻底地

in regard to 关于

in the neighborhood of 大约、邻近

in retrospect 回顾,一想起

in behalf of 代表……利益

in the least 一点,丝毫

in alarm 惊慌、担心

in the opinion of 据……见解

in the long run 从长远说来

in one's opinion 在……看来

in word 口头上

in a word 总之

in vain 无益地, 白白地

in case 如果,万一,以防

in detail 详细地

in haste 急急忙忙地

in conclusion 总之

in spite of 尽管

in other words … 换句话说

in return 作为回报

in the name of 以……名义

be confident in 对……有信心

be interested in 对……感兴趣

in doubt 怀疑

in love 恋爱中

in debt 负债

in fun (jest、joke) 玩笑地

in hesitation 犹豫不决

in wonder 在惊奇中

in public (secret) 公开他(秘密地)

in a good humour 心情(情绪)好

“介词 at、to 表方向,攻击、位置、善恶、分”

介词 at 和 to 都可以表示方向; 用 at 表示方向时,侧重于攻击的目标,往往表示恶意;用to 表示方向时,突出运动的位置或动作的对象,侧重表示善意。

试比较下列各句:

1. A.She came at me. 她向我扑过来。

B.She came to me. 她向我走过来。

2.A.Jake ran at John. 杰克向约翰扑过去。

B.Jake ran to John. 杰克朝约翰跑去。

3.A. He rushed at the woman with a sword. 他拿着剑向那妇女扑过去。

B. He rushed to the woman with a sword. 他带着剑向那妇女跑过去。

4.A.He shouted at the old man. 他大声喝斥那老人。

B. He shouted to the old man. 他大声向那老人说。

5.A.I heard her muttering at Xiao Li. 我听见她在抱怨小李。

B.I heard her muttering to Xiao Li. 我听见她在同小李低声说话。

6.A. She talked at you just now. 她刚才还说你坏话呢。

B.She talked to you just now. 她刚才还同你谈话呢.

7.A.She threw a bone at the dog. 她用一块骨头砸狗。

B.She threw a bone to the dog. 她把一块骨头扔给狗吃。

8.A.He presented a pistol at me. 他用手枪对着我。

B.He presented a pistol to me. 他赠送我一支手枪。

初中英语语法:英语介词姐妹篇(2)

日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早午晚; 以下皆用 on。

例: on October the first 1949 1949年10月1日

on February the thirteenth l893 1893年2月13日

on May the first 5月1日

on the first 1号

on the sixteenth 16号

on the second of January 或 on January the second 1月2日

on a summer evening 在夏天的一个夜晚

on Boxing Day 在节礼日(圣诞节次日)

on New Year's Day 在元旦

on my birthday 在我的生日

但 in the Christmas holidays 在圣诞节假期; in the eighteenth century 在十八世纪; in ancient times 在古代; in earlier times 在早期; in modern times 在现代,则用 in,at the present time 现在,at the present day 当今 则用 at。

on May Day 在“五·一”节

on winter day 在冬天

on December 12th 1950 l950年12月12日

on Sunday 在星期天

on Monday 在星期一

on Tuesday morning 星期二早晨

on Saturday afternoon 星期六下午

on Friday evening 星期五晚上

但 last night 昨夜;in the evening 在晚上; on time 准时,in time 及时,等则不同。

年月日,加早午晚,of 之前 on 代 in

例:on the morning of 18th 18日早晨

on the evening of 4th 4日晚上

On the eve of their departure they gave a farewell banquet and their head gave a farewell speech. 他们在临行前夕举行了一次告别宴会,他们的团长发表了告别讲话。

收音、农场,值日 on

例:Did your supervisor like the story over (or on) the radio last night?

您的导师喜欢昨天从收音机里听到的故事吗?

I heard the news over (or on) the radio. 我从收音机里听到了这一条消息。

talk over the radio 由无线电播音

on TV 从电视里……

hear something on the wireless 在无线电里听到

My brother works on an Army reclamation farm. 我哥哥在一个军垦农场工作。

The students are working on a school farm. 学生们正在校办农场劳动。

This is a farmer's house on a farm. 这是农场的农舍。

Who is on duty, today? 今天谁值日?

We go on duty at 8 a.m. 我们上午8点钟上班。

关于、基础、靠、著论

例: This afternoon we are going to listen to a report on the international situation.

今天下午我们要听关于国际形势的报告。

Professor Shen will give us a talk on traveling in America.

申教授将给我们做关于美国之行的报告。

You are wrong on all these issues. 在这些问题上你的看法都错了。

The belief is based on practical experience. 这种信念是以实际经验为基础的。

Theory must be based on practice. 理论必须以实践为基础。

The people in the south live on rice. 南方人主食大米。(靠)

The citizens live on their salaries. 城市人靠薪金生活。

You can't afford luxuries, on an income of 100 yuan a month.

靠月薪100 元的收入,你是买不起奢侈品的。

Her pet dogs were fed on the choicest food. 她用精饲料喂养她心爱的狗。

He is just a scrounger, who lives on other people. 他正是一个乞丐,专靠损害别人过日子。

Keep the kettle on the boil (=boiling). 让水壶的水一直开着。

The enemy are on the run (=running). 敌人在逃跑。

On 后接 the 加上一个作名词的动词.其意义与现在分词所表达的相近。类似例子很多如:

on the march 在行军中,on the mend 在好转中,on the prowl 徘徊,on the move 活动中,on the scrounge 巧取豪夺(俚语),on the go 活跃,忙碌,on the lookout 注意, 警戒,on the watch 监视着。on the hop 趁不备抓住某人等等。

on the People's Democratic Dictatorship 《实践论》和《矛盾论》

on the People's Democratic Dictatorship 《论人民民主专政》

“on Coalition Government”《论联合政府》

着、罢、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付,相反、准

注:口诀中的“着”是指着火,“罢”指罢工,“偷”指偷偷地,“公”指出差、办公事;“假”指休假,“准”指准时。

例:The house next to mine was on fire. 我邻居的房子着火了。

The workers of the railway station were on strike. 铁路工人罢工了。

Grapes and big water melons from Sinkiang are on sale on a large sale.

新疆葡萄和西瓜大量上市了。

Do something on the sly (quiet). 秘密地(暗地里,偷偷地)做某事。

I've come here on business. 我是有公事来的。

They went to Bern on a mission. 他们到伯尔尼去执行一项使命。

They have been away on a long trip. 他们出去做一次长途旅行。

I'll go home on leave next month. 下月我将休假回家。

I went on business to Shanghai. I did not take leave. 我是公出去上海的,不是不告而别。

She came to see you on purpose. 她是专程来看你的。

He came here on purpose to discuss it with you. 他到这来是要与你讨论这件事的。

“This lunch is on me.”“这顿午饭我付钱。”

“No. let's go Dutch.”“不,还是各付各的。”

On the contrary, it was very easy to understand. 相反,这事儿很容易理解。

P1ease come on time. (on schedule). 请准时来。

注:in time 是“及时”的意思。

The train arrived on schedule. 火车准时到达。

特定时间和“一……就”,左右 on 后动名词

例:Gases expand on heating and contract on cooling. 气体加热时膨胀,冷却时收缩。(特定时间)

On entering the room, he found his friends dancing in high spirits.

一进屋,他就发现他的朋友们在愉快地跳舞。

On reaching the city he called up Lao Yang. 一到城里他就给老杨打了一个电话。

I'll write to him on hearing from you. 我接到你的来信就给他写信。(一……就)

以及 on the left, right 向左向右,on the stair 在台阶上等。

初中英语语法:英语介词姐妹篇(3)

步行、驴、马、玩笑 on,cab,carriage 用 in

例:On foot 步行; on horse 骑马; on donkey 骑驴。

He rode on, blood flowing from his side. 他骑着马,鲜血从腰部流下来。

The soldier of the Eighth Route Army rode 100 li on a horse a day in order to catch up with his unit. 为赶上部队,那位八路军战士骑马日行百里。

Go on horse back! 骑马去!

You are having me on! 你和我开玩笑呢!

in cab 和 in carriage 不能用 on 或 by cab 或 carriage。

at 山脚、门口在当前,速、温、日落价核心

即在山脚下、在门口、在目前,速度、以……速率、温度、在日落时、在……核心要用at。

例:At the foot of the mountain, there are thirty of our comrades.

在山脚下,有我们30 个同志。

There is a beautiful lake at the foot of the hill. 山脚下有一个美丽的湖。

At the gate of the house there are many children playing glass ball.

门口有一大群孩子在玩玻璃球。

Who's standing there at the door? 谁站在门口?

I don't need the dictionary at present. 我现在还不需要这本词典。

He is at present in Washington. 他目前正在华盛顿。

The train runs at fifty kilometres an hour. 火车每小时行驶50 公里。

We built the plant at top speed and minimum cost.我们以最低的投资,最高的速度修建了该工厂。

at home 在国内,在家里

at ten degrees centigrade 在摄氏10 度

at minus ten degrees centigrade 摄氏零下10 度

Water freezes at 0°centigrade. 水在摄氏零度结冰。

Water usually boils at 100°. 水通常在摄氏100 度沸腾。

at zero 在零度

at full speed 全速

at a good price 高价

at a low cost 低成本

at a great cost 花了很大代价

at that time 在当时

Evaporation takes place at all temperatures. 蒸发在任何温度下都能发生。

at 1000 RPM (revolution per minute) 每分钟1000 转

at a high speed 高速

The soldiers launched an attack upon the enemy at sunset.战士们在日落时对敌人发起了攻击。

at daybreak 日出时

The force at the core leading our cause forward is the Chinese Communist Party.领导我们事业的核心力量是中国共产党。

The atom has a nucleus at its core. 在原子的中心有一个原子核。

At the beginning of this term the teacher in charge of our class was very strict with us. 这学期开始,我们的班主任老师对我们要求非常严格。

以及 At the first session of the First National People's congress of the People's Republic of China. 在中华人民共和国第一次全国人民代表大会第一次会议上.

常用的 at 短语有:

at first 首先,开始时

at least 至少

at all events 无论如何

at home 在家,无拘束

at one stroke 一下子

at a loss 不知怎办

at any rate 不管怎样

at length 详细地

be at high tide 处于高潮期

at our invitation 应我们的邀请

at our request 应我们的请求

at the news 听到这消息

at the risk of 冒……危险

at a great expense 以巨大费用

at a stroke 一举

at intervals of 每隔

at liberty 有权,随意

at the sight of 一见到

at the point of 接近,靠近

at the thought of 一想到

at the speed of 以……速度

at the cost (price) of 以……为代价

at leisure 闲着、失业

at the disposal of 任凭……使用

at stake 在危险中、在成败关头

at bottom 实际上、本质上

at short notice 一得到通知

at seeing us 看到我们

at the happy tidings 听到喜讯

at sixteen 在16岁时

at the present stage 在现阶段

at the weekend 周末

at all times 永远

at 405 Victory Road 在胜利路405号

工具、同、和、随 with,具有,独立、就、原因

例:We write with ball pens. 我们用油笔写字。(工具)

但 He write in blue ink. 他用蓝水笔写字(墨水用 in 不用 with)

Theory must go hand in hand with practice. 理论必须同实践相结合。(同)

He is talking with friends. 他正同朋友们谈话。(同)

I'd like to have a dinner with a friend. 我喜欢同朋友共同进餐。

We must co-operate closely with them. 我们必须同他们紧密合作。(同)

We, as human beings are going to leave, but friendship has taken roots among us and our hearts are linked with yours. 我们虽然就要走了,但是友谊却在我们之间扎了根,我们的心和你们的心是紧紧相连的。(和或同〕

A cadre must become one with the masses.干部必须和群众打成一片。

I'm with you. 我同意你。

An atom is so small that we can't see it with a microscope.原子太小,即使用显微镜也看不见它。(工具)

In the past I had to part with my wife. 旧社会我不得不和妻子离别。(和)

The socialist revolution is deepening with each passing day.社会主义革命日益深入。(随着)

They sail with the wind. 他们顺风航行。(随着)

With the change of the economic foundation, the superstructure has to be transformed too. 随着经济基础的改变,上层建筑也必须改变。(随着)

With the battle of Waterloo, Napoleon's rule in Europe was ended.滑铁卢一战,拿破仑对欧洲的统治就完蛋了。

The modern electron tube. 随着电子管的发明而诞生了现代电子工业.

She is with child. = She is in a very interesting condition. = in a family way, = She is pregnant (in pregnancy). 她怀孕了。(有)

但She is with a child.意为:“她领着一个孩子。”

China is a very large country with a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的大国。(具有)

China is a country with a population of one billion people.中国是一个有10 亿人口的国家。(具有)

What is the matter with you? 怎么回事?(就,关于)

How is it with you? 你怎么啦?(就,关于)

Everything was going well with them. 他们一切都进行得很顺利。(就……)

It is a very intense flash with a lot of power packed into it.由于聚集了大量的能,所以闪光非常强烈。(独立结构)

注;即分词独立主格结构用 with。

With a new welding technique introduced, the use of stainless steel was no longer limited to making small things only. 由于新的焊接技术的引进,不锈钢的使用就不仅仅局限在微小的物件上了。(独立结构)

With all its beams advancing in step with each other the laser possessed very particular properties which no ordinary light ever has. 由于激光的光束同步,所以它具有普通光所没有的特殊性质。(独立结构)

Without the temperature or pressure changed matter can never change from one state into another. 没有温度或压力的变化,物质永远不能以一种状态变到另一种状态。(独立结构)

The evil landlord was trembling with fear. 那个万恶的地主吓得浑身发抖。(原因)

My wife's hands were rough with work. 我爱人因为老干活,手很租糙。(原因).

With the help of my classmate's tape recorder I listen to the Voice of America and B.B.C every day. 借助于我同学的录音机,我每天收听美国之音和B.B.C。(原因)

With television, we can see all kinds of programmes on the screen sitting at home without going to the movies and theatres. 因为有了电视,我们坐在家里就能看到各种节目, 而不必去影院、戏院了。(原因)

就……来说宾译主,对、有、方状、表细分

这里的 with 后边的宾语常译成主语。

例:How are the things with you? 你情况怎样?

What's wrong with your eyes? 你的眼睛怎么啦?

Something is wrong with my hands. 我手出点毛病。

Everything was going well with them. 他们一切都进行得很顺利。

Parents must be strict with their children. 父母对子女要严格。(对)

The doctor was very patient with his patients. 那位医生对患者非常耐心。(对)

I'm quite satisfied with your answer. 我对你的回答很满意。(对)

Many intellectuals with revolutionary tendencies went to the liberated areas.许多带有革命倾向的知识分子都投奔解放区了。(有)

These apartment houses are for workers with families. 这些住宅楼是给有家属的工人盖的。

He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded.他两手交叉在胸前坐在椅子上。(状语)独立结构

They are highly mechanized farms, with machinery to do all the work.它们是高度机械化的农场,所有工作都由机器进行。(状语)独立结构

上两句是 with 引出的复合结构。

I will be with you again in half an hour. 过半个钟头我还会跟你们在一起的。(with 的介词短语作表语。另注意 in 将来时态 in 以后)

海、陆、空、车、偶、被 by,单数人类 known to man

例: by land (air, sea, water, bus) 陆路(航空,水陆,水路,乘公共汽车)

by micro bus 坐小面包车(微型汽车)

by mini bus 坐小面包车

by train 坐火车

by trolley bus 坐无轨电车

by tram 坐有轨电车

by bike 骑自行车

by motor car 骑摩托车

by tube 坐地铁

by airbus 坐大型客机(空中汽车〕

by jeep 坐吉普车

by chance 偶然

by accident 偶然,无意中

by virtue of 靠、由于

by leaps and bounds 大幅度地

by way of 经由

by the book 按常规

The list of discoveries by“accident”could fill a long book.偶然的发现可以写一本很厚的书。(偶然)

The law of relativity was formulated by Einstein. 相对论是爱因斯坦创立的。(被动)

The book was written by Mr. Zhang. 这本书是张先生写的。(被动)

That in 1969 the first artificial satellite was launched to the space is known to man. 1969 年第一颗人造卫星上了天是众所周知的。

这里用 to man 而不用 by。即当单数又无冠词的 man 和 known 搭配时,表示人类不用 by。


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