The wind was cold, and frank took the test tube in his left hand, walked quickly to the window, and looked through the window again. It was so cold that he pressed down all four corners. Outside the window faintly can feel the breath of the war not far away, under the terror of death, a baby's cry, broke the cold and solidified air.
It was January 8, 1942. Stephen William hawking was born in this warm family, at the age of 61, Einstein is to complete the "science and religion" and so on a series of scientific papers, are getting ready for the jews to the Soviet union organization's activities. Perhaps too busy, the science giant did not anticipate the birth of his successor. Little hawking brought a lot of joy to frank and Isabel, but there was a lot of trouble. With children is a big challenge for them, than to write medical theory can be much more complex, although Isabel has a research in the field, but in order to be a good mother, she still want to cram a lot of infant and young child care knowledge.
As the days passed, hawking grew up, and occasionally made funny faces to make his parents happy.
, when a few years later, a swing of small hawking can walk to speak, but the odd thing is that he and other children, often looked at the books on the shelves of hair to stay for a while in silence, it is more attractive than playing with toys. So the parents decided to provide him with the best learning conditions and hope that his son could get over himself. It is not only in China, but also in all countries, that Jackie chan wants to be a girl.
Later, hawking had a sister and his parents adopted a younger brother. Since then, hawking is no longer alone, preferring to take care of his younger brother and sister rather than play with his companions. Hawking soon reached the age of learning, his intelligence and his child, just a book in his room is much larger than the other children, his studies and go all the way, finally got into the university of Oxford. It was the result his parents wanted most, and it was the result of his years of hard work. After entering the university, hawking's parents discussed his employment issues from time to time.
Hawking himself does not care about this, he think about the future is not much, and most of the same age students, as in a confused period, do not spend too much time to think about his future, also don't spend time on academic papers. Of course, he often played with his classmates, but he did not love sports, and he was not good at sports activities. He had no flexibility in his hands and feet. Hawking was ugly when he was a boy, but he couldn't control himself. Once or twice, after falling down at school, he couldn't get up on his own -- a sign that he was haunted by foreboding. Still, he happily spent his 21st birthday.
Since childhood, sport has not been hawking's long term, and he is not good at almost all the ball games. In the third year of his study in Oxford, hawking noticed that he had become clumsier, with one or two falls without any reason. Once, somehow, he slipped down the stairs and fell into a coma, almost dead.
But it wasn't until 1962, when hawking was a graduate student in Cambridge, that his mother noticed her son's unusual condition. Hawking, who had just turned 21, spent two weeks in the hospital and was diagnosed with "Lou gehler's disease", or motor neuron atrophy, after a variety of tests. All his limbs will be more and more, and then to the body and internal organs, until the heart and lungs, the final death, he has two years most of time, even before the day with a bachelor's degree.
At first, the disease worse quite rapidly, it is conceivable for hawking blow, he almost gave up all the study and research, life began is facing serious challenges, more like was just about to open flowers have been hit hard.
The illness grew worse day by day. By 1970, hawking, who was academically famous, could not walk by himself. Reluctantly, he began to use a wheelchair. He never left it again.
Even in his wheelchair, hawking did not escape the trick of fate. In March 1991, hawking a wheelchair on the way back to Berlin apartment, knocked down by a car, his left arm fracture, the head is cut, put 13 stitches, but the strong hawking just after 48 hours of correction is back office work. When he and his friends went to a country house, hawking was dumped in the bushes, as he turned from his wheelchair.
In 1984, he had a difficult time talking and began to mumble, and it took a long time to say a few words. In 1985, hawking contracted pneumonia and was treated with an open trachea, and he was unable to speak again.
Later, people installed a computer and speech synthesizer in his wheelchair. He USES only two intact fingers to knock out the words on the keyboard, composing the corresponding sentences and making sounds through a speech synthesizer. He used this method for academic exchanges and academic reports.
In the face of the challenge, the destiny seemed to retreat, a two and a half years passed, a few years and a half past, he still strong living.
No matter how bad the fate is, there should always be something to be done, and there is hope in life.
His body changed a lot, soon can't move, and the doctor expected, he didn't bother to study more academic questions, until the emergence of a girl, had changed his life trajectory, gave him the courage to survive.
The man who gave hawking the first miracle was Jane Wilder, his girlfriend. In the summer of 1962, Jane, through her friends, met hawking, who was clumsily walking and stumbling, and then a few more encounters. So they have a love, but a little bit of bitterness. The power of love is irresistible. On July 14, the following year, Jane and Stephen married. Their view of love was not given up in the presence of the disease, but more determined, and the two men stood side by side in the myth that they could only live for two and a half years.
Hawking has returned to academic research and has successfully obtained a doctorate. Hawking has a unique sense of humor about women, and when asked what his goals are, he answers the first question about what is in the black hole and the second to know what a woman is.
After many years, Jane in his memoirs "music to move the stars" wrote: "I love him very much, nothing can stop me from marrying him, I am willing to cook for him, laundry, shopping and the housework, give up my own ambition."
Hawking's body was unable to move, saying that it would take a few complicated transitions, but even that would not change his academic research, and he completed a brief history of time. This is after Einstein's theory of relativity, revealing the mysteries of the universe's greatest works in physics, he is one of the most successful people with disabilities, and most can work wonders and challenge the mighty men of fate, he expounded the concept of time, and break time. Those in their 20s who were sentenced to death have lived to this day. In 2012, he was 70.
(1) black holes are not black.
Hawking's subject is the universe, but he has never been interested in observing astronomy, only a few times using a telescope. Hawking's approach is intuitive, compared with traditional scientific methods such as experiments and observations.
The great achievement of "black holes" comes from a flash. One night in November 1970, hawking began to think about black holes as he slowly climbed into bed. He suddenly realized that a black hole should have a temperature so that it would emit radiation. In other words, black holes aren't really that dark.
After three years of thinking, this idea formed a complete theory. In November 1973, hawking formally announced to the world that black holes radiate x-rays, gamma rays, and so on, which is known as hawking radiation. Until then, it was thought that black holes would only swallow.
Hawking has made an outstanding contribution to the development of quantum cosmology from the singularity of the big bang to the radiation mechanism of the black hole. Hawking won the Wolf physics prize in 1988.
(2) latest progress in quantum mechanics.
Hawking hope to solve the mystery of the time of the birth of the universe, in the 70 s, hawking applied quantum mechanics to explain the black hole, but after 30 years, with quantum mechanics to explain the universe has become more difficult. Hawking can want to find a set of perfect explain the universe theory to explain the universe was born in 13.7 billion until now, but over the years, even if infinite close to him there is still no conclusion. According to his theory of quantum mechanics, the big bang is the birth of the universe, this is a compressed infinitely small has a super gravity of matter (it also density is infinite) a product of the explosion. The theory of quantum mechanics can't explain how this process works. Why is that? "There has to be a theory that describes small-scale gravity," hawking said. The latest scientific breakthrough was Stephen Hawking's colleague, Michael green of queen Mary college in London. Green) to participate in the construction of superstring theory, referred to as "string theory", the theory that all particles and forces of nature, are like a string of tiny objects in shock, solved the hawking has been trying to solve problems of gravity, the theory must be established in the universe there are 9, 10, and even more than 11 dimensions, and we are in a three-dimensional world can only be truly one of the membrane of the universe. A large number of scientists from around the world are now conducting experiments in space and earth to prove string theory and experiment to support hawking's theory of black holes and quantum theory.
(3) time machine theory.
Famous British physicist Stephen William hawking after admit the existence of aliens, and published a surprising: he said with a human into a time machine in the future, is feasible in theory, the required conditions including the wormhole in space or spacecraft speeds close to the speed of light. But hawking also warned against going back to history because "only the mad scientist would want to go back to the past."
According to British media reports, physicist Stephen Hawking in recent mention when filming the documentary about the universe, human beings can actually built the spacecraft close to the speed of light, and into the future.
Hawking said, even because worried that others put him as a "geek", so we can't talk, also don't want to talk more about what a time machine, through documentary will dare to generous after discussion.
There are gaps in time.
As for the key point of the time machine, hawking emphasizes the so-called "four-dimensional space", which scientists have named wormhole. "Wormholes" are all around us, just small to the naked eye, and they exist in cracks in space and time. He points out that the universe is not flat or solid, and close to the observation will reveal that all objects will have holes or wrinkles, which is the basic physical law, and it applies to time. Time also has subtle cracks, wrinkles and gaps, and the tiny Spaces of molecules and atoms are called "quantum bubbles", and wormholes exist in them.
(5) back to "distant past"
Instead, scientists attempt to travel through space and time in a very narrow tunnel or a shortcut, and they form, disappear or transform in the quantum world, connecting two different Spaces and times. Some scientists believe that, one day, it may be able to catch the wormhole, magnify it and make it possible for humans and even spacecraft to travel through it. In addition, scientists may also be able to build a giant wormhole if they have enough power and complete technology.
Hawking, points out that the theoretical time tunnel or "worm hole" can not only bring human to travel to other planets, if in the same position on both ends of the wormhole, and in time rather than distance interval, so the spacecraft can fly, fly out after still close to the earth, in the so-called "of the distant past. Because in 4 degrees, 10 minutes might be n hours.
(6) the ship can go to "the future"
Hawking said that if scientists are able to build speed close to the speed of light in the spacecraft, the spacecraft will inevitably because we can not in violation of the law of the speed of light is the maximum speed limit, causes the hold time is slow, so flights a week and on the ground in 100, is also a significant Yu Feijin future.
Hawking, for example, refers to a satellite that orbits at a slightly faster time than the earth because of its small impact on earth's gravity. Thus, hawking can imagine a large speed space ship, can accelerate to 97000 KPH in 1 seconds, six years to accelerate to 99.99% of the speed of light, than the fastest in the history of the spacecraft Apollo 10 to 2000 times faster. The passengers on board were flying into the future to make a real time trip.
Hawking's story: writing science fiction at the frontiers of science.
Hawking, an outstanding contemporary physicist, is not only at the forefront of scientific research, but has written many fascinating popular science books.
In the book "a brief history of time," hawking is obsessed with the idea of grand unification, an unfulfilled dream of Einstein. Hawking says in the book, cannot use a single formula describing and predicting the everything of the universe, because of the uncertainty principle of quantum theory determines the universe are the unity of uncertainty and certainty. Hawking USES a map model to show that the diversity of the universe may require a set of theories to describe.
The nature of time and space in the 80 years ago when the general theory of relativity is expressed in the form of a complete mathematical, the basic principles of quantum theory has emerged about 70 years ago, but these two kinds of the most accurate in the whole physics, one of the most successful theory can be united in a single quantum gravity? Two of the world's most famous physicists have an extreme and extreme debate on the subject. The book is based on the six lectures and final debates between hogan and Penrose at Cambridge university.
"The charm of the future" is hawking predicted the future prospects for beginning in one billion, universe to tang, bit the final trial comprehension to the end, this paper introduces the development course and the prediction we today the method to predict the future.
"The universe in the shell" is the most important work of hawking after a brief history of time. In this book, hawking once again brings us to the forefront of theoretical physics. In hawking's world, truth and fantasy are sometimes just a thin line. Hawking USES popular language to explain our full vision of the universe and, with his unique passion, invites us to embark on an extraordinary journey of time and space.